Free resource of references and bibliographies – fast forward your research career!

Sohaib Sandhu (Editor)


If you are thinking about doing some research or are looking for a topic for your MA or potential PhD it’s essential that you start reading. However, quite often, we may not know where to begin.

The International Research Foundation for English Language Education (TIRF) has an excellent resource of references categorised by topic. To take a look at it, go to:

You will literally find lists of research articles categorised by a vast array of topics. Reading these will quickly bring you up to standard on a particular area. This is a treasure trove. Don’t miss this great opportunity to springboard your research career.

The TIRF also provides research funding and is particularly interested in researchers from the Middle East. If you are interested in finding out more, go to:

To subscribe to their monthly newsletter, go to:

Happy researching!!



How to promote students’ motivation in learning English

Contributed by Ms. Duria Salih Mahmoud
MA English Language
ESL Instructor – Prep Year
Taibah University, Al-Ula Female Campus

“If there is a job worth doing, it is worth doing well”.

What is motivation? Motivation is a combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language. It plays a significant role in the process of learning a language & it improves students’ self-motivation.

Student’s motivation is influenced by internal and external factors that can intensify or discourage it.

  1. Intrinsic motivation: The urge to engage in a learning activity for its own desire.
  2. Extrinsic motivation: The individual’s motivational stimuli are coming from outside.

Points to keep in mind:

  • Create a comfortable, friendly, pleasant, relaxed, and supportive atmosphere in the classroom.
  • Give verbal and non-verbal rewards. Ignoring showing praise, encouragement or appreciating students for their efforts can erode their confidence.
  • Provide a real life situation and set a goal for learning.
  • Look for a communicative situation which brings language to life in the classroom, e.g. games which can link language with action.
  • Keep everyone involved, active, interested and participating.
  • Develop a good relationship with students.
  • Promote learner autonomy, taking into account individual differences, interests and expectations.
  • Learners must believe that they have some control over the outcomes because of their performance.
  • Use strategies like brain storming, previewing etc. to create motivation in the class, start from the previous knowledge and link it with the new lesson.
  • Give positive feedback and reinforcement to increase students’ self-confidence, competence, and encourage positive self-evaluation.
  • Encourage students to relate their classroom experience to outside interests and activities, e. g., use some apps for learning English as a means to facilitate conversation, learn, and have fun.
  • Provide pair and group activities to develop students’ confidence and collaboration.
  • Develop your teaching strategies & create appropriate & varied teaching methods.
  • Respect students as learners.Don’t be critical of your students.  When students make a contribution or attempt to answer a question acknowledge their effort and respond in a diplomatic way.
  • Correct errors with compassion.
  • Show students that you care about them and how well they are learning the subject matter.
  • Help them analyze their strengths & weaknesses & offer tools to help.
  • Ask students to analyze what make classes more or less ‘’motivating’’.
  • Avoid creating intense competition among students.
  • Be enthusiastic about your subject.
  • Encourage Students to Personalize the Classroom Environment (e.g., cover the walls with colorful posters or arrange their classroom in the way that would make them feel most comfortable).
  • Provide opportunities for students to experience & celebrate their success.


  • The major factors in students’ motivation are the teacher (attitude , i.e. set a personal example of how they should behave), the teaching method, and the learning environment.
  • The issue is not “How can people motivate others?” but “How can people create the conditions within which others will motivate themselves?”
  • Useful link:

You can access the power point presentation here:


Teacher Development

Contributed by Ms. Tahira Farid
ESL Instructor – Prep year
Taibah University, Yanbu Female Campus

Modern day teaching requires continuous growth with the help of new approaches, ideas and teaching methodologies. A teacher, in today’s fast paced world, is obliged to be engaged in continuous professional development through different means and sources. CPD (Continuous Professional Development) serves that purpose befittingly and ensures that teachers continue to be competent in their profession. It’s an ongoing process which takes place throughout our teaching careers and improves our performance on the job.

It is important to note that CPD is not merely a formal process such as a workshop, seminar or conference; it can also occur in informal contexts such as reading, discussion among colleagues, research or peer observation.

My first post (link attached) on this forum is related to the role of CPD in our profession; how we can continue to learn and develop throughout our careers and how to keep our knowledge and skills up to date.

The British Council’s website gives an overview of the complete CPD framework which is a part of British Council’s Teaching for Success Approach (written by Simon Borg). There is an overview for each of the 12 professional practices of CPD including relevant resources such as links for webinars and articles, to further help in the development of language teachers.